The heart is the first organ to develop in humans. It is in charge of the blood flow. At the level of the heart, there are 4 large valves which are the aortic valve, the pulmonary valve, the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve.
In many cases, due to some heart diseases, these valves do not function in a normal way, for example they may not open enough (valve narrowing) or not close hermetically (valvular insufficiency).
In these cases, then, we are talking about valvuloplasties that require surgery (replacement of heart valves). Valvuloplasties are cardiac surgeries that consist in substituting the natural valve with a graft or mechanical device.